CONTOURS OF A GOOD EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM: LESSONS FROM THE GOOD PRACTICES IN INDIA
Corresponding Author(s) : Noor Ahmad Baba
UED Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities and Education,
Vol. 7 No. 5 (2017): UED JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES, HUMANITIES AND EDUCATION
For any educational policy to be successful it is necessary that it evolves in relation to its own objective context and is able to address social, cultural, economic, political and psychological requirements in the given situation. Therefore, any such policy developed in abstraction or in a different social setting cannot meet the specificities of its subjective requirements. It is so as no two social situations can be identical. However, while recognising differences, there is always scope to learn from each other's experiences and best practices. It is with this perspective that the theme of this presentation is dealt with. In spite of variations of size and socio political orientations between India and Vietnam there is scope for benefiting from each other's experiences in the realm of educational objectives, motivation and trainings. The objective of the Indian educational policy in recent years has been universal access to primary education. The Government has provided for right to education as mechanism of facilitating the universal access to education. This has to have relevance to all developing societies including Vietnam. For empowering a people ensured universal education will have tremendous relevance for human development in any society. The deficiencies if any at this level have to be met by special measures by Governments. Education from the age of 5/6 to the age of 11/12 and then to 14 has to be universally ensured and facilitated if a society has to be uplifted and empowered socially, educationally, and economically.
The education at this level should be universal, non-repressive provided through play way method and in a friendly enabling atmosphere. This level education has to aim at multidimensional development of a child in cultural, psychological and social terms. This kind of education will help societies to develop a necessary edifice for prosperous, healthy, socially and politically empowered community. The teachers at this level are to be specially trained and motivated by adding to their social stature, and paying them better salary for their retention at this level of education setup. The secondary level of education focuses on skill development training and basic sciences among the students with some focus on initial level specialisation. This level of education covers the age group from 14 to 18. The much of the workforce that a healthy prosperous economy requires should be prepared at this level. This follows somewhat more specialised training and education for a third phase to further grounding the student in their respective areas of specialisation for all the superior services, teachers at various levels that can go for up to three to four years.
In terms of their nature and objective there is a vital difference between lower and higher levels of education. In addition to bringing cultural refinement, social empowerment within a person, one of the main objectives of education up to the middle level globally is to impart knowledge and skill to prepare candidates for specialised services and assignments that are needed within a society, particularly in relation to skill based economic activities. That is why world-over up to middle (bachelors or equivalent) level of education in the relevant field is sufficient requirement for most of the middle and high ranked jobs. For example eligibility for highest administrative services in India is simple graduation. Higher education, particularly at the level of the universities, is not just to impart knowledge meant merely for preparing people for jobs but to prepare them for generating new knowledge by using their services for specialized academics and research assignments in sciences, medicine, engineering, social sciences and other academic disciplines.
 In terms of size of population, India is almost fourteen times bigger than Vietnam. In terms of social plurality and diversity, it is much more than that so, India is comprised of 29 Political units/states. In India the school education comes under state subject. Therefore, in India every State has a separate system of education.
 India is divided into 29 states and 7 so-called “Union Territories”. The states have their own elected governments while the Union Territories are ruled directly by the Government of India, with the President of India appointing an administrator for each Union Territory. As per the constitution of India, school education was originally a state subject - that is, the states had complete authority on deciding policies and implementing them. The role of the Government of India (GoI) was limited to coordination and deciding on the standards of higher education. This was changed with a constitutional amendment in 1976 so that education now comes in the so - called concurrent list. That is, school education policies and programmes are suggested at the national level by the GoI though the state governments have a lot of freedom in implementing programmes. Policies are announced at the national level periodically. The Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE), set up in 1935, continues to play a lead role in the evolution and monitoring of educational policies and programmes.
 Like, Doon Public School and some International Schools operating in India.
 The school system in India has four levels: lower primary (age 6 to 10), upper primary (11 and 12), high (13 to 15) and higher secondary (17 and 18). The lower primary school is divided into five “standards”, upper primary school into two, high school into three and higher secondary into two. Students have to learn a common curriculum largely (except for regional changes in mother tongue) till the end of high school. There is some amount of specialization possible at the higher secondary level. Students throughout the country have to learn three languages (namely, English, Hindi and their mother tongue) except in regions where Hindi is the mother tongue and in some streams as discussed below.
 The Directive Principles of State Policy envisage that the state shall endeavour to provide free and compulsory education for children up to 14 years of age within a period of 10 years
 Primary and Middle (lower primary (Standards I to V) and upper primary (Standards VI to VIII)) education is compulsory and free in India. Primary education begins at age 6 with Middle/Upper Primary school education ending at age 14. Schooling is offered at state-run and private schools, however, private schools often have poorer facilities and infrastructure than government schools. The regional language is the medium of instruction for most primary schools and English as a second language generally begins by grade 3.
 The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act' or 'Right to Education Act also known as RTE', is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted on 4 August 2009, which describes the modalities of the importance of free and compulsory education for children between 6 and 14 in India under Article 21A of the ...
 Like huge unemployment, weak monitoring structure and overwhelming presence of private sector in teacher education process.
 The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is an autonomous organisation of the Government of India that was established on 1 September 1961 as a literary, scientific and charitable Society under the Societies' Registration Act (Act XXI of 1860). Its headquarters are located at Sri Aurbindo Marg in New Delhi.  Dr Hrushikesh Senapathy has been the director of the council since September 2015.
 Such centralised arrangement for text book writing has its own flaws and critics and controversies.
 Admission to undergraduate courses generally requires completion of the Standard XII years of schooling and admittance to university depends almost exclusively upon performance on the examination. Bachelor’s degrees in the fields of arts, science, social studies, and commerce are almost exclusively three- year programs. Diploma programs exist and range from 2-3 years in length and are provided at polytechnics, usually in a specialized engineering or technological field, and culminating in an Advanced or Post Diploma. Professional Bachelor’s degrees, in the fields of Medicine, Architecture, Law, etc., vary from 4 - 5.5 years depending upon the discipline.
Admission to graduate (Master, Post Graduate Diplomas, MBA, etc.) programs is dependent upon completion of a bachelor’s degree (3 or 4 years, depending upon the subject) with a Second Class pass or higher. Non-university education in Management is popular in India, with many institutions offering Post Graduate Diplomas in Management, lasting 2 years and generally equivalent to an MBA. Doctoral level degrees require a minimum of two or three years and consist of research and a thesis or dissertation.
In spite of these and other significant initiative due to a shortage of resources and lack of political will, the educational system in India suffers from massive gaps including high pupil to teacher ratios, shortage of infrastructure and poor levels of teacher training. There have been several efforts to enhance quality made by the government. The District Education Revitalisation Programme (DERP) was launched in 1994 with an aim to universalise primary education in India by reforming and vitalising the existing primary education system. Kerala became the 1st Indian state to achieve 100% primary education through its literacy programme Athulyam.